Placenta preparations from early ages have been used to treat wounds in ancient soldiers, according to extant legends placenta masks are one of the beauty secrets of Cleopatra.
Pronounced wound-healing properties of the extracts of the placenta and placental tissue fragments were known to Hippocrates (5th c. BC). Modern scientists did not lose interest to placenta and developed highly efficient cryotechnologies, enabling long-term storage of placental tissue in liquid nitrogen (-196 C) without losing its valuable biologically active substances, such as growth factors. It is also proved that the placenta is a rich source of hematopoietic and mesenchymal stem cells, which are increasingly used in regenerative medicine, bioengineering of organoids, primarily osteochondral conduits, since, as shown by scientists, placental stem cells have the highest osteogenic potential.
New trends in the use of placental drugs in modern medicine include the production of placental tissue allografts for the treatment of burns, nonhealing ulcers, chronic wounds and eye operations.
May 22-25, 2015 Istanbul (Turkey) hosted the 41st Conference of the European Group on Blood and Marrow Transplantation – EBMT. This is the most important annual event in the European and world hematological transplantation, gathering thousands of experts from all over the world. In 2015, at the EBMT conference, a group of authors from Spain (M. Rodrıguez et al.) presented an extremely interesting and challenging work “Cryopreserved amniotic membrane improves healing of chronic wounds”.
Amniotic membrane is non-tumorigenic tissue, characterized by low immunogenicity, anti-inflammatory, antifibrotic and antimicrobial action due to its ability to synthesize cytokines and growth factors. From the point of view of scientists, amniotic membrane of the placenta, which is in most cases discarded after childbirth, may be used as a biological dressing for treating chronic wounds in diabetic and nondiabetic patients.
Amniotic membrane was obtained by cesarean section in the presence of informed consent of mothers. Prepared pieces of amniotic membrane were used only in caseof the negative results of the serological tests 3 months later. Amniotic membrane was applied weekly or every 10 days until complete healing or partial re-epithelialization of ulcers. On average, one course of treatment included 3-8 amniotic membrane fragments. The average duration of treatment was 45 days. In the course of treatment reduction of size of ulcers up to 76% was noted and in 4 of 6 patients complete epithelialization of the wound was achieved.
Ukrainian scientists also may be proud of the great scientific and clinical experience in the use of placental drugs and tissue allografts. For example, the Institute of Cell Therapy developed and implemented into clinical practice methods of wounds and burns treatment based on the use of placental fragments, and corneal transplants derived from the amniotic membrane. Also, the Institute of Cell Therapy has exclusive author’s methods of manufacturing of highly efficient placenta preparations for the application in cosmetics and medical practice, including programs of puerperal rehabilitation and individualized anti-age therapy.