The hematopoietic stem cells transplantat is a well-known protocol method of treatment of a wide range of blood diseases (leukemias and lymphomas, aplastic anemias, immunodeficiencies), some forms of cancer.
As a source of hematopoietic stem cells, the bone marrow (since 1959), peripheral blood after appropriate mobilization, and umbilical cord blood (since 1988) have been used. Due to the introduction of this method of treatment into clinical practice, blood cancer is considered to be a curable disease, however, if it is possible to find a compatible donor of hematopoietic stem cells.
It is estimated that the chances of finding a matching donor of bone marrow have 5 of 10 representatives of the Caucasians and only 1 out of 10 Asians.
Due to the complexity of finding compatible hematopoieticstem cells donors, cord blood banking is actively developing around the world, since the latter is an alternative to bone marrow, which was officially announced by the European Society for the Transplantation of Blood and Bone Marrow (EBMT) in 2006 and 2010.
Today, more than 2,000 transplants of the umbilical cord blood are performed annually in the world. In the USA alone since 2009, more than 5,000 transplants of the umbilical cord blood have been performed. More than 1,000 cord blood transplants were performed in India. About 1,000 cord blood transplantats are annually performed in Japan.
Autologous preservation of the umbilical cord blood (for the needs of their family) is considered a kind of biological insurance.
Due to the high cost of autologous preservation of stem cells after birth (although the cost of the donor cord blood sample is much higher – about $ 25,000), many parents wonder whether the preservation of this biological material is expedient, and scientists have already made appropriate calculations and forecasts.
So, according to Nietfeld et al. (2008), the probability of using cord blood to a child under the age of 20 equals 1 in 5,000, but by age of 70 this index is increased to 1 in 450. It should also be taken into account that about 30% of cord blood transplants are performed to treat genetic diseases.
Scientists in the United States have also processed and provided other statistics. They note that in 2017, FDA approved the use of umbilical cord blood for the treatment of autism and cerebral palsy, and in the United States, cerebral palsy occurs in 1 out of 323 children, while autistic spectrum diseases are diagnosed in 1 out of 68 children.
A study conducted by the world’s largest umbilical cord blood bank, Cord Blood Registry® (USA), found that at least 4.23% of the 94,803 families that preserved cord blood in the CBR had at least one child with indications for regenerative therapy using stem cells of the umbilical cord blood.
And in the case of a hematologic disease that is being treated by an autologous or related transplantation of hematopoietic stem cells, the availability of a stored umbilical cord blood sample can save the family from long, expensive and often unsuccessful searches of bone marrow donor.
As of 2017, over 40,000 umbilical cord blood hematopoietic stem cells transplants have been performed worldwide.
Due to the data of Association of Cryobanks and http://www.babycell.in/pdf/UCB-Statistics.pdf and http://celltrials.org/news/featured-advanced-cell-therapy-trial-expanded-access-cord-blood-therapy-autism-and-cerebral-palsy