As we reported earlier, in June 2015, Stockholm (Sweden) hosted the 13th meeting of the International Society for Stem Cell Research, where Ukraine was represented by the Institute of Cell Therapy. We continue to acquaint you with the most interesting papers presented at the conference.
Dag Josefsen et al. (Norway) in the report “Clinical application of human adipose derived regenerative cells (adrcs) in tissue repair of severe side effects following curative radiotherapy treatment”. Actually treatment of post-radiation wounds includes methods of plastic surgery and, if indicated, hyperbaric oxygenation. But, as it was revealed recently, injections of adipose tissue stem cells directly into foci of chronic wounds accelerates tissue healing. Regenerative cells of adipose tissue, also known as the stromal vascular fraction, contain endothelial progenitor cells, smooth muscle cells and adipose tissue derived cells. Today only a small number of patients with injuries worldwide passed this treatment, but the results of conducted therapy gives reason to believe that such treatment is promising and can be considered as an alternative to conventional treatment. As it was emphasized by the researchers, the procedure of isolation of stem cells from adipose tissue is well established, safe and makes it easy to get a large number of cells. It was found that one gram of adipose tissue contains 300-500-fold more stem cells than bone marrow.
Aurore Lafosse et al. (Belgium) presented a paper “Impact of diabetes on dermal fibroblasts and keratinocytes: potential of adipose-derived stem cells in cell therapy for chronic diabetic wounds“, in which discussed an important problem of cell therapy, namely, how the disease affects the properties of stem cells and the availability of stem cells in the adult patient for autologous therapy. It is known that with age and under pathological conditions clonogenic and proliferative potential of stem cells is reduced, such cells due to their biological potential yield cell material obtained from young healthy donors. In this presentation scientists confirmed in studies in vitro that skin fibroblasts are very sensitive to hypoxia and hyperglycemia, the latter always occur in the case in diabetes. However, scientists have shown that adipose stem cells may well survive in adverse conditions of diabetes and presented clinical experience of treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes using biological dressings containing adipose stem cells.
Anish Sen Majumdar (India) presented the poster “Efficacy of Stempeucelr, an allogeneic pooled human mesenchymal stromal cells, in multiple preclinical models of human diseases with diverse pathophysiology,” in which they introduced a drug Stempeucel®, developed by them. Stempeucel® is a drug of allogeneic human mesenchymal stem cells from different healthy donors, which is produced under GMP conditions. Currently stromal / stem cells from bone marrow are studied extensively in basic and translational research. It was found that stromal / stem cells from bone marrow have potent immunomodulating and anti-inflammatory properties and stimulate tissue regeneration and angiogenesis by secretion of trophic factors. The ability of the stromal / stem cells of the bone marrow to influence functional properties of almost all types of immune cells in a paracrine mechanism, and through interaction with cell surface targets expanded the use of these cells in the allogeneic transplantology. Scientists hope that the biological product they created will find its niche in regenerative medicine.
Catarina Oliveira Miranda et al. (Portugal) in the report “Transplantation of mesenchymal stromal cells alleviates motor impairments and neuropathology of a mouse model of Machado-Joseph disease” presented a new approach to the treatment of this disease with the use of transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells. Machado-Joseph disease or ataxia type 3 is the most common spinocerebellar ataxia in the world, a genetically mediated disease. It was shown that transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells reduces manifestations of Machado-Joseph disease and can be considered as a new effective treatment for this still incurable disease.
Anna Maria Ranzoni et al. (Australia) presented a paper “Neonatal transplantation of human amniotic fluid stem cells improves bone quality in a mouse model of osteogenesis imperfecta.” Osteogenesis imperfecta is a congenital disease that occurs with a frequency of 1:10 000 children and manifests with bones fragility. Among the methods of treatment of osteogenesis imperfecta scientists consider the possibility of prenatal transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells capable to differentiate into osteoblasts. Fetal human mesenchymal stem cells can be obtained only from amniotic fluid in the middle period of gestation. In the present study, the stem cells of human amniotic fluid were injected to newborn mice with osteogenesis imperfecta, 8 weeks later the animals were examined. It was noted that in mice, who received treatment with stem cells, fractures frequency was lower than in untreated mice. Frequency of femur fractures was 3.6% versus 33%; tibia 3.6% vs 17%. Therapeutic effect of transplantation of mesenchymal stem cell researchers explained by the fact that the maturation of the transplanted progenitor cells into preosteoblasts directly or indirectly enhances mineralization and bone quality.
Eric Neely et al. (Canada) presented the report “Development of local acting biologics for combined stem cell and gene therapy to treat arthritis.” Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disease that is characterized by chronic inflammation, joint damage and decreased quality of life of the patient. In rheumatoid arthritis, an increased production of proinflammatory cytokines occurs, in particular tumor necrosis factor alpha, which stimulates the proliferation of immune cells, production of other proinflammatory cytokines, what ultimately leads to joint damage. Currently only remedies of systemic action are available for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, and this treatment is accompanied by side effects – decrease of immunity and thus increased susceptibility to tuberculosis and an increased risk of tumors development. The authors presented a new biological drug known as TNF-α “sticky traps.”
Analysis of the reports presented at the conference of the International Society for Stem Cell Research states that most of presented research is of a translational character, ie, running studies are directed at the indispensable implementation of new developments into medical practice, as well as significant clinical advances in regenerative medicine within the last decade are noted .