In 2018, cell and gene technologies are at the peak of popularity, attracting more and more investments. Every day new clinical trials launch worldwide to study the effectiveness of drugs of stem cells, not only native, but increasingly after a variety of molecular manipulations.
In addition to cord blood storage, biobanks are increasingly offering services for cryopreservation of the stem cells derived from the placenta, umbilical cord, adipose tissue, amniotic fluid, milk teeth, and menstrual blood.
Also legal regulation of manufacturing and clinical application of cell preparations is getting harmonized in the world, what simplifies the procedure of registration of new biologics for the treatment of socially important diseases when there is no alternative.
A feature of modern medicine is personification, that is, the manufacturing of individual, ideally compatible drugs for every patient from their own stem cells.
Methods of expansion of umbilical cord blood stem cells are being actively worked out. These are Nicotinamide-mediated (NAM) expansion techniques, modifications of such molecules as Notch ligand, SR-1, UM171, PGE2, fucosylation.
As of 2018, there are 450 active umbilical cord blood banks in the world.
Among the genetic technologies, CAR and CRISPR are the most promising. The CAR method (chimeric antigen receptor) is studied for the modification of lymphocyte receptors to “teach” these cells to bind selectively to tumor antigens, and thus eliminate malignant neoplasms.
With the use of CRISPR (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats), approaches to edit genes and treat genetically predisposed diseases are being developed. CRISPR technologies can also be used in oncology for the high-precision delivery of drugs to tumor, in particular, chemotherapeutics.
Source: bioinformant.com and own data of the Association of Cryobanks