New application of umbilical cord blood
For the first time in the world, hematopoietic stem cells of the umbilical cord blood were used in 1988 to treat Fanconi anemia. Since then, umbilical cord blood is widely used as an alternative to bone marrow source for hematopoietic stem cells to treat malignant and aplastic blood diseases in children and adults as well as congenital immunodeficiencies.
Total number of transplants of hematopoietic stem cells of cord blood performed worldwide exceeds 35,000. Within clinical trials the umbilical cord blood is also used to treat a wide range of cardiovascular and neurological diseases, diabetes, in orthopedics / traumatology and other branches of medicine.
However, modern science proves that the value of the umbilical cord blood is not limited to the presence of hematopoietic stem cells in it. Equally important and promising for practical medicine are populations of cord blood mesenchymal stem cells, as well as endothelial precursors and very small embryonic-like cells and others.
In recent years, scientists pay increasing attention to the biological value of T-cell of the umbilical cord blood that could be promising for the treatment of transplant rejection reactions, and “graft-versus-host” disease, which often complicates bone marrow transplant.
Thus, in a clinical study conducted in the United States, the safety and efficacy of the use of expanded regulatory T-lymphocytes of the umbilical cord blood in a dose of 103×106 / kg of recipient’s body weight to prevent a graft-versus-disease has been shown. And in the new, recently completed in US clinical trial 11 patients were effectively treated with cord blood T cells at higher doses to prevent “graft-versus-host” disease.
In the light of modern medicine, umbilical cord blood is also considered to be the ideal biological material for obtaining induced pluripotent stem cells that are already being studied for the treatment of blindness within a clinical trial, conducted in Japan.
Previously, we reported about the possibility of manufacturing a wound healing platelet gel from the umbilical cord blood, which has a number of advantages compared to the similar drug obtained from the blood of adult donors.
Non-cellular biological drugs that can be obtained from the umbilical cord blood are artificial tears and plasma, enriched with growth factors.
Based on http://www.bloodjournal.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=26563133 and data of the Association of Cryobanks